Brief Overview: Quantum Cryptography

Quantum cryptography is a buzzword nowadays. We know that conventional cryptography plays a critical role in securing data by using complex mathematical problems. Quantum cryptography uses concepts of quantum physics to achieve security. This blog provides you with a brief overview of quantum cryptography.

What is Quantum Cryptography?

Quantum Cryptography is a method of securing data by using the concept of quantum physics. Note that the algorithm based on quantum cryptography is considered to be safe even in case of the availability of high computing power.

Quantum cryptography uses photons to transmit information on fiber optic cables. Although it seems to be easy, the complexity behind quantum physics is difficult to manage.

Quantum Cryptographic Algorithms

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is working on quantum algorithms that will be used under the post-quantum cryptography standardization project. Below are some algorithms identified by NIST and still evaluation is going on to test the strength of the algorithms.

(1) CRYSTALS-Kyber

General purpose encryption which is based on the hardness of solving the learning-with-errors (LWE) problem over module lattices.

(2) CRYSTALS-Dilithium

Used in application of digital signature. The algorithm is based on a family of structured lattices.

(3) FALCON

Similar to Crystals-Dilithium, it is used in the application of digital signatures. The algorithm is based on a family of structured lattices.

(4) SPHINCS+

Used in application of digital signature. The algorithm is based on a hash function.

Applications

Primarily quantum cryptography is used in distributing secrets (quantum key distribution) in insecure communication. This help in securing secret keys from bad people.

To build trust between unknown parties, quantum cryptography will be used. This concept is called Mistrustful quantum cryptography.

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Disclaimer: This tutorial is for educational purpose only. Individual is solely responsible for any illegal act.

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