Computer Networking: Basic Tutorial

In this tutorial, I have summarized some of the basic computer networking terms and concepts.

Computer Network: It is a collection of network devices such as the router, firewall, desktops, different servers, etc. It is further classified as an open and closed network.

Open Network: Other networks can be connected to the open network.

Closed Network: It is also called isolated network. Other networks can be connected to the open network.

Network Devices: It helps desktops to connect with other machines. Router, Switch, Hub, Bridge are most common network devices which are used to interconnect network.

Router: Connect two or more different network with each other.

Switch: It helps to connect different desktops and other network devices in the same network.

OSI model: OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnections. It helps network professionals and researchers in understanding data flow and protocols used for data transfer from source to destination.

osi model, 7 layers

hostname: It defined as user-given nicknames to the desktops and other devices for easy identification of assets. In windows, you can find hostname by launching Command  Prompt and type command "hostname".

IP Address: You can understand this term by taking an example of the address of your house. Just like your house address is used to locate your house. Similarly, an IP address is used to locate the network among many networks. Further, IP addresses are classified as private and public IP addresses. You can find a private IP address by just type "ipconfig" in Command Prompt (Windows). Your public IP address can be identified by typing "my IP" in the google search.

Ports: Applications (installed in one host) exchange data with other applications (installed in another host). The host may have more than one application that sends/receive data. Any application can be uniquely identified by using a combination of host IP and port number.

Command "netstat -a" can be used to get details of an application—a uniquely identified combination of host IP and port number termed as Socket.

DNS: It stands for Domain Name System. It converts the domain name or web URL into the corresponding IP address. Command "nslookup www.google.com" identified the IP address of servers of Google.

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP): It converts IP address to its corresponding MAC or physical address.

Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP): It converts MAC or physical address to its corresponding IP address.

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If you have any questions, feel free to ask in the comments section below. Nothing gives me greater joy than helping my readers!

Disclaimer: This tutorial is for educational purpose only. Individual is solely responsible for any illegal act.

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